Once you have been given a tentative diagnosis of or a similar sleep/breathing disorder, an all-night sleep test should be arranged. Proper testing for sleep disorders is important because several sleep disorders have superficial similarities and might be confused with sleep apnea or be incorrectly diagnosed if testing is not done properly. An incorrect diagnosis, leading to incorrect treatment, can be a serious error. For example, medications that are often prescribed for narcolepsy or insomnia can actually worsen sleep apnea, so a correct diagnosis is very important.
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder in which people have irresistible “sleep attacks” at inappropriate times, somewhat as in sleep apnea. However, narcolepsy is a distinct neurologic disorder with its own characteristic symptoms (cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic ) not found in sleep apnea.
Insomnia is sometimes confused with sleep apnea. Insomnia has numerous causes, and only a few people who have insomnia also have sleep apnea.
Two other sleep disorders sometimes occur alone or along with sleep apnea. These are periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS, also called periodic leg movement disorder, PLMD, or nocturnal myoclonus) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). Again, appropriate testing by an experienced sleep disorders specialist will avoid confusing one sleep disorder with another.
An overnight sleep test will:
1. Confirm whether you actually have sleep apnea or another form of sleep-disordered breathing
2. Determine the type of sleep/breathing disorder, which must be known in order to select the appropriate treatment
3. Rule out other sleep disorders
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. Several theories postulate deficits in ADHD that have effects across many executive functions or in more narrowly defined aspects, such as response inhibition.
Electrophysiological studies on children, however, indicate that ADHD is not associated with a core deficit of response inhibition, as abnormal inhibitory processing is typically preceded or accompanied by other processing deficits. It is not yet known if this pattern of abnormal processing is evident in adult ADHD.
Methods: The objective of this paper was to investigate event-related potential indices of preparatory states and subsequent response inhibition processing in adults with ADHD.
Two cued continuous performance tasks were presented to 21 adults meeting current criteria for adult ADHD and combined type ADHD in childhood, and 20 controls.
Results: The ADHD group exhibited significantly weaker orienting attention to cues, cognitive preparation processes and inhibitory processing. In addition, we observed a strong correlation between the resources allocated to orienting to cues and the strength of the subsequent response strength control processes, suggesting that orienting deficits partly predict and determine response control deficits in ADHD.
Conclusions: These findings closely resemble those previously found in children with ADHD, which indicate that there is not a core response inhibition deficit in ADHD.
These findings therefore suggest the possibility of developmental stability into adulthood of the underlying abnormal processes in ADHD.
Author: Grainne McLoughlinBjoern AlbrechtTobias BanaschewskiAribert RothenbergerDaniel BrandeisPhilip AshersonJonna Kuntsi
Credits/Source: Behavioral and Brain Functions 2010, 6:66
Grantor:Dystonia Medical Research Foundation
Dystonia Medical Research Foundation Fellowships
The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) encourages and supports research related to the causes, mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of all forms of dystonia, the third most common movement disorder.
A two-year Fellowship is designed to assist post-doctoral fellows establish careers in research relevant to dystonia.
Funding for fellowships is $50,000 per year for two years.
The deadline for all 2011 applications is December 15, 2010.
Please contact Jody Roosevelt, Grants Manager, at 312-447-5150 or email@example.com if you have any questions.
Dystonia Medical Research FoundationOne East Wacker Drive, Suite 2810
Chicago, Illinois 60601-1905
Phone: 312-755-0198Toll free: 800-377-DYST (3978)
Categories:Career Development, Chronic Diseases, Clinical Research, Disease-Specific Research, Fellowships, Inheritable Disorders, Motor Disorders, Movement Disorders, Muscle Disorders, Neurology, Neuromuscular, Rare Disorders, Brain, Brain Disorders
Audience:Junior Investigator, Junior Researcher, Junior Scientist, New Investigator, New Researcher, Postdoctoral Fellow, Young Investigator, Young ScientistGoto Top